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原标题:The Opium War - Lost in Compensation l HISTORY OF CHINA

【网盘】:链接:https://pan.baidu.com/s/1ChifwO6ghVvpamkUcxIrmg 提取码:949v

站内相关:http://translate.ltaaa.com/article/7392

【站外播放】
https://www.acfun.cn/v/ac10861928
https://weibo.com/tv/v/I5fnPs1EB?fid=1034:4412493729342290
https://v.youku.com/v_show/id_XNDMwNDM3MTE0OA==.html?spm=a2hzp.8244740.0.0

译者按:

For centuries, China had remained largely aloof from the intrigues of world over trading rights, would bring about a full-scale war, which was to then bring about a huge influx of foreign influence and herald the beginning of a "century of humiliation".

几个世纪以来,中国大体上与复杂的国际政治保持距离,但是情况开始有了变化,一开始只是贸易权的争端,竟然会引发一场全面战争,然后导致了大量境外势力的流入,也宣告了百年耻辱的开始。

The Middle Kingdom would never be the same again, and it all started with two highly addictive and lucrative goods: tea and opium.

中央之国的繁荣不再,这一切都源自两种极易成瘾且商业利益丰厚的商品:茶叶与鸦片。

Regular trade between China and Europe had been ongoing since the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th Century. As European economic power expanded in the 17th and 18th centuries, Chinese goods like silk and porcelain became highly fashionable in the cities and courts of the West, and trade in these products was very lucrative.

自16世纪葡萄牙人到访以来,中国与欧洲之间的贸易已为常态,随着欧洲的经济实力在17世纪和18世纪的提升,中国的丝绸与瓷器令西方人疯狂不已,这些商品的贸易非常有利可图。

In Britain, however, there was no Chinese product which created a greater demand than tea, for which the British developed an insatiable appetite. There were two problems with that, though.

然而在英国,对茶叶的需求远胜过其他的中国产品。对此,英国人对茶养成了贪得无厌的胃口,这带来了两个问题:



When the Portuguese first introduced tobacco from North America, many Chinese had started smoking the two drugs together recreationally.It became a popular social pastime and by the late 18th Century, increasingly large amounts of opium, produced by the British East India Company, were being shipped to China.

当葡萄牙人从北美洲引进了烟草,许多的中国人开始聚众吸食鸦片与烟草作乐,
吸食这两种毒品也成为流行于18世纪晚期的社交消遣活动。随后英国东印度公司开始大量生产鸦片,并将鸦片运往中国。


The Chinese imperial government tried to ban the opium trade several times,but the British were able to bypass these laws with the help of smugglers and cooperative local authorities eager to exploit the demand.

中国曾多次尝试禁止鸦片贸易,但是英国人得以绕开这些法律法规,靠着走私买办,与急于从中分一杯羹的当地政府机关帮助。

British companies flooded the black market with thousands of tons of the drug during the 1830s receiving silver in return. The number of Chinese opium addicts grew as large as 12 million, obviously a cause for concern. In December 1838, the Daoguang Emperor sent commissioner Lin Zexu to Canton to deal with the problem.

19世纪30年代,英国公司将成千上万吨的毒品流入黑市,换取白银。
鸦片成瘾的中国人增长到了1200万,这个现象明显地令人担忧,1838年12月,道光皇帝派钦差大臣林则徐到广州处理这个问题。

Lin declared the death penalty would be applied to anyone found importing or possessing opium.He also confiscated over 1000 tons of opium (worth £2 million) following a blockade of the merchant's quarter. He then had the opium destroyed in May 1839.

林则徐宣布任何进口或持有鸦片的人都会判处死刑,他还没收了超过一千吨的鸦片(值200万英镑),随后封锁了商业区,他在1839年5月下令销毁没收的鸦片。



By June, the expeditionary force had arrived on the Chinese coast. It blockaded the Pearl River before heading north to bring the demands to the Emperor.

六月,远征军抵达中国海岸,先是封锁了珠江,再向北航行以向皇帝传达要求。

On July 6th, the British captured the island of Zhoushan near the mouth of the Yangtze,

7月6号,英国占领了长江出海口附近的舟山岛,当地官方拒绝投降后,英国持续九分钟的砲火攻击几乎彻底瓦解了中国的防御工事。

virtually annihilating Chinese defences in a nine-minute barrage after local officials refused to surrender. They headed further north in August, blockading more ports. In battle after battle, the dire state of the Chinese military had become clear: Soldiers were equipped with bows, spears, and swords, and the occasional matchlock musket.

8月他们继续朝北挺进,沿路封锁了更多的海港,一场接着一场的战斗,中国军队的困境显而易见,士兵的武装只包括了弓、矛与剑,偶尔会有火枪。

Military units, scattered across a vast empire, would take many months to march to where they were needed. Chinese coastal defences were crumbling stone forts, and the small war junks simply weren't equipped to fight the battleships and frigates of the Royal Navy.

军队分散在庞大帝国的各处,要花数月才可以集结到战场,中国海防工事只有摇摇欲坠的岩石碉堡和帆船

Also, local authorities and military leaders were unwilling to bear news of defeats to Beijing, and the Emperor instead received fabricated reports of heroic victories. Seeing the whole business with Britain as a mere sideshow, many refused to acknowledge that there was a war on at all.

完全无法和皇家海军的战舰和护卫舰对抗,同时,当地官方和军事领袖不愿将战败的噩耗上达朝廷,所以皇帝收到的报告都是精心捏造的英勇胜利。甚至有人将与英国的冲突视为一个插曲,拒绝承认有一场战争正在开打。

Indeed, when the British fleet first arrived, Daoguang was informed
that it was simply an unusually large flotilla of opium smugglers.

的确,当英国舰队初次抵达时,道光收到了报告,通知他只是规模异常庞大的鸦片走私舰队。



Following the withdrawal from Canton, the fleet headed north again,
occupying several cities between August and October 1841.
Campaigns the following year captured Chapu and Shanghai, then still a small town.

随着从广东撤军后,舰队继续北上。1841年八月到十月间又占据了几座城市,次年就占领了乍浦与上海,上海当时仍然只是个小镇

The final major battle of the war took place at Zhenjiang Jen-jiahng,
where the British assault destroyed much of the city and killed many of the men defending it.

最后的大型战役发生在镇江,英国突袭摧毁了这个城市的大部分地区与守军

With the road to Nanjing open, and with it control of the entire Yangtze region,
the Chinese government became fully aware of how serious the situation was, and sued for peace.
On August 29, 1842, Britain and China signed the Treaty of Nanking.

随着通往南京之路的通畅,英军控制了整个长江流域,朝廷这才彻底了解事态严重性,并向英国求和1842年8月29日,英国与中国签订《南京条约》

Among other things, China agreed to pay 20 million silver dollars in indemnities,
abolish the Cohong monopoly, adhere to fixed customs duties, open five ports to foreign trade
(including Canton and Shanghai), and cede the island of Hong Kong to Britain.

除了其他的事物外,中国同意付出2000万银元的赔偿,废止公行垄断、同意协同关税、开放5个通商口岸(包含广东和上海)并割让香港给英国。

This was the first of many "Unequal Treaties" that China was to sign over the following decades.
The 1850s saw Britain and France fight China in a second Opium War,
which culminated in the burning of the Emperor's Summer Palace in Beijing,
fully legalised the opium trade and opened yet more ports to foreign merchants.

这是中国接下来几个世纪所签定的不平等条约之一,19世纪50年代英法对中国发动了第二次鸦片战争,过程中烧毁了皇帝避暑宫殿圆明园,买卖鸦片彻底合法化并开放更多对外港口



So what do you think? Was the forceful opening of China an inevitable consequence of rising European Imperialism nd China's military weakness, or might things have gone differently if the opium dispute had taken a different course? Let us know in the comments.

那你觉得呢,强力迫使中国开放,是欧洲帝国主义和清廷军力积弱不可避免结后果吗?
还是说如果采取别的方式处理虎门销烟,事情会不会有不一样的发展呢?请在讨论区告诉我们你的看法